In 1865, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell published a paper titled “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” in which he laid the foundations for the modern study of electromagnetism. In this paper, Maxwell formulated four equations that describe how electric and magnetic fields interact. These equations are now known as Maxwell’s equations.

Maxwell’s equations are comprised of four main parts: Gauss’ law for electricity, Gauss’ law for magnetism, Faraday’s law of induction, and Ampère’s circuital law. Each equation describes a different aspect of how electric and magnetic fields behave. Together, they form a complete picture of electromagnetism.

Gauss’ law for electricity states that electric charges create an electric field that radiates outward from the charge in all directions equally. This equation is used to calculate the strength and direction of an electric field created by a given charge distribution.

Meanwhile, Gauss’ law for magnetism states that there are no “magnetic monopoles” – meaning that magnets always have north and south poles (unlike charges which can be either positive or negative). This equation is used to calculate the strength and direction of a magnetic field created by a given current distribution.

Faraday’s Law Of Induction says that whenever an electromagnetic field changes its intensity or orientation, it will induce an opposing electrical voltage. This opposes any change in the current flow. For example, if we were to move a bar magnet through a coil of wire, it would induce a current in the magnetic field which would oppose our original motion.

Last but not least is Ampere’s Circuit Law which states that the total current flowing through any closed loop is directly proportional to the rate of change of the total magnetic flux enclosing the loop.

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