Voltage, often referred to as electrical potential difference, is the force that pushes electric current through a conductor. Here’s a concise overview:

## Definition:

• Voltage is the difference in electric potential energy between two points per unit electric charge. It’s essentially the “pressure” that pushes electric charges through a conductor.

## Measurement:

• The unit of voltage is the volt, represented by the symbol “V.” It’s measured using a voltmeter.

## Types:

• Direct Voltage (DC): Remains constant over time, typical of batteries.
• Alternating Voltage (AC): Changes direction and amplitude over time, as seen in household electricity.

## Function:

• Voltage drives electric current. The higher the voltage, the more “force” there is to move electric charges through a circuit.

## Sources:

• Batteries, generators, and solar cells are examples of devices that produce voltage.

## Ohm’s Law:

• Relates voltage (V), current (I), and resistance (R) in a circuit: (V = I \times R).

## Safety:

• High voltage can be dangerous, as it can drive a high current through a conductor, including the human body. Safety precautions are essential when working with or near high-voltage systems.

## Applications:

• Almost all electronic and electrical devices require a voltage source to operate, from tiny microchips to large industrial machines.

## Voltage Drop:

• As current flows through a component or conductor, there may be a decrease in voltage, known as a voltage drop, which is typically due to resistance.

## Voltage vs. Current:

• While voltage is the force that drives electric charge, current is the flow rate of the charge. Think of voltage as the water pressure in a hose, and current as the flow rate of the water.

In summary, voltage is a fundamental concept in electronics and electrical engineering, representing the potential difference that drives electric current through circuits.