Conductors, semiconductors, and insulators are three materials that differ in their ability to conduct electricity.

Conductors are materials that allow the electric current to flow easily through them due to the presence of free electrons. Metals like copper, aluminum, and silver are good conductors of electricity.

On the other hand, insulators are materials that do not allow the electric current to flow easily through them because they have few free electrons. Materials like rubber, glass, and plastic are good insulators.

Semiconductors are materials that have properties between those conductors and insulators. They can conduct electricity under certain conditions but not as quickly as conductors. Silicon is the most commonly used semiconductor material in electronics.

The main difference between these three types of materials lies in their band structure, which determines the ability of electrons to move freely in the material. The valence band and conduction band overlap in conductors, allowing electrons to move quickly. In insulators, there is a large energy gap between the valence and conduction bands, which prevents electrons from moving quickly. In semiconductors, the energy gap is smaller than in insulators, allowing some electrons to drive under certain conditions, such as exposure to heat or light.