In physics, the density of a material is its mass per unit volume. The symbol for density is ρ (the Greek letter rho). Density is an intensive property, which means that it does not depend on the amount of material present. For example, one cubic meter of gold has the same density as one cubic meter of lead.
Density can be calculated by dividing the mass by the volume:
where ρ is density, m is mass, and V is volume. The SI unit for density is kg/m3 (kilograms per cubic meter). However, other units such as g/cm3 (grams per cubic centimeter) or lb/ft3 (pounds per cubic foot) are sometimes used in specific circumstances.
It should be noted that different materials often have very different densities. For example, water has a density of 1 g/cm3 whereas solid iron has a much higher density of 7.87 g/cm3. This means that equal volumes of these two substances do not have the same mass – 1 cm 3 of water weighs only about 1 / 8as much as 1 cm 3 of iron!
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