Common Hosting Terminology

By January 25, 2023H, T
  • .htaccess: A file configures website settings and permissions on an Apache web server.
  • .htpasswd: A file used to create password-protected directories on an Apache web server.
  • A record: An DNS record type that maps a domain or subdomain to an IP address.
  • AAAA (Quad-A) record: An DNS record type that maps a domain or subdomain to an IPv6 address.
  • Addon domain: A domain that is added to a hosting account and points to a subdirectory within the main account.
  • Akamai: A content delivery network (CDN) service provided by Akamai Technologies that speeds up the delivery of static and dynamic web content and offers DDoS protection and other security features.
  • Ansible: An open-source software provisioning, configuration management, and application-deployment tool. It uses YAML language to describe automation jobs and can be used to manage various types of systems and services.
  • API (Application Programming Interface): A set of protocols and tools that allows different software systems to communicate with each other.
  • API documentation: Technical documentation that explains how to use and interact with an API.
  • API Gateway pattern: An architectural pattern involves routing API requests through a single entry point, typically an API Gateway, to provide features such as rate limiting, authentication, and caching.
  • API Gateway: A server that acts as an intermediary between an application and a set of microservices, typically providing features such as rate limiting, authentication, and caching.
  • API Gateway: A server that acts as an intermediary between an application and a set of microservices.
  • API Key: A string of characters passed with API requests to identify the API client.
  • API Management: A set of tools and practices for managing and securing APIs.
  • API Rate Limiting: A technique used to control the rate at which API requests are made to protect the API and its underlying services from being overwhelmed.
  • API Security: The practice of securing APIs and the data that they transmit.
  • API Token: A string of characters that is passed with API requests to authenticate the API client.
  • App Engine: A fully managed platform for developing and hosting web applications in a variety of programming languages and frameworks provided by Google Cloud.
  • Auto-scaling: The ability of a system to automatically increase or decrease the number of resources (such as servers) based on the current load.
  • Azure Container Service: A fully managed service provided by Azure that allows you to run containerized applications on a cluster of virtual machines, using either the Kubernetes, Docker Swarm, or Mesosphere DC/OS orchestration engines.
  • Azure Functions: A serverless compute service provided by Microsoft Azure that allows developers to run code in response to specific events.
  • Backups: A copy of website data that can be used to restore the website in case of data loss.
  • Bandwidth: The amount of data that can be transferred between a website and its users in a given amount of time.
  • CAPTCHA: A test that is designed to determine whether a user is human or a bot, typically by requiring the user to enter a series of characters or solve a simple puzzle.
  • CDN (Content Delivery Network): A network of servers distributed across multiple locations that work together to deliver website content to users based on their geographic location.
  • Chef: An open-source tool for automating the configuration and management of servers, it uses its own domain-specific language (DSL) called “recipes” to describe automation jobs and can also be integrated with other tools like Ohai for system information gathering and Berkshelf for managing cookbook dependencies.
  • Client-side scripting: The process of creating dynamic web pages using programming languages like JavaScript, which runs on the client’s web browser.
  • Cloud Access Security Broker (CASB): A security solution that sits between an organization’s cloud environment and its users, enforcing security policies and monitoring for threats.
  • Cloud Auditing: The process of reviewing an organization’s cloud environment for security and compliance risks and reporting the findings to relevant stakeholders.
  • Cloud Automation: The use of tools, software, and technology to automate the deployment, scaling, and management of cloud resources.
  • Cloud Backup and Recovery: A service that allows you to backup and recover your data from a remote location, typically provided by a cloud storage provider.
  • Cloud Backup as a Service (BaaS): A service that allows organizations to back up their data to a remote location, typically provided by a cloud storage provider.
  • Cloud Backup: A service that allows you to back up your data to a remote location, typically provided by a cloud storage service.
  • Cloud bursting: A technique in which an application can dynamically scale up its resources by using resources from a public cloud when the demand exceeds the capacity of the private cloud.
  • Cloud Compliance: The process of ensuring that an organization’s cloud environment meets regulatory and industry standards for security, data protection, and other areas.
  • Cloud Container Engine: A fully managed service provided by Google Cloud that allows you to easily deploy, run and scale containerized applications using Kubernetes.
  • Cloud Disaster Recovery as a Service (DRaaS): A service that allows organizations to recover their data and systems in the event of a natural disaster or other catastrophic event, typically provided by a cloud storage provider.
  • Cloud Disaster Recovery: A service that allows you to recover your data and systems in the event of a natural disaster or another catastrophic event, typically provided by a cloud storage provider.
  • Cloud Drive: A service that allows you to store your data on remote servers, typically provided by a cloud storage provider and that mimics the way a local drive works on your computer.
  • Cloud Encryption: The process of encrypting data that is stored or transmitted in a cloud environment in order to protect it from unauthorized access.
  • Cloud File Synchronization: A service that allows you to synchronize your files across multiple devices, typically provided by a cloud storage provider.
  • Cloud Forensics: The process of collecting, analyzing, and preserving data from a cloud environment for use in investigations and legal proceedings.
  • Cloud Foundry: An open-source, multi-cloud application platform as a service (PaaS) governed by the Cloud Foundry Foundation, that provides a choice of clouds, developer frameworks, and application services.
  • Cloud Functions: A fully managed service provided by Google Cloud that allows you to run single-purpose, stateless functions in response to events like changes to data in a Firebase project, changes in a Cloud Storage bucket or new data in a Firestore database.
  • Cloud Governance: Organizations use policies, procedures, and standards to manage their cloud environments and ensure compliance with regulations and industry standards.
  • Cloud Hosting Provider: A company that provides cloud hosting services such as Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud, and Microsoft Azure.
  • Cloud hosting: A type of hosting service that uses a network of servers in a remote location to host websites, allowing for scalability and flexibility.
  • Cloud Identity and Access Management (CIAM): The process of managing and controlling access to an organization’s cloud environment, including the management of user identities, authentication, and access controls.
  • Cloud Incident Response: The process of detecting, responding to, and recovering from security incidents in a cloud environment.
  • Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): A service that provides virtualized computing resources, such as virtual machines, storage, and networking, over the internet, typically provided by a cloud provider.
  • Cloud Migration: The process of moving data, applications, or other business elements to a cloud computing environment.
  • Cloud Penetration Testing: The process of simulating a cyber attack on an organization’s cloud environment in order to identify vulnerabilities and assess the effectiveness of security controls.
  • Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS): A service that provides a platform for developing, deploying, and managing applications, typically provided by a cloud provider.
  • Cloud Run: A fully managed service provided by Google Cloud that allows you to run stateless containers that are invocable via HTTP requests.
  • Cloud Security: The practice of protecting an organization’s cloud environment from cyber threats and ensuring the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data and resources.
  • Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS): A service that provides software applications over the internet, typically provided by a cloud provider.
  • Cloud Storage: A service that allows you to store your data on remote servers, typically provided by a cloud storage provider.
  • Cloud Synchronization: A service that allows you to synchronize your data across multiple devices, typically provided by a cloud storage provider.
  • Cloudflare Workers: A serverless compute platform that allows developers to run code on Cloudflare’s edge network, allowing for low-latency and highly-scalable web applications.
  • Cloudflare: A CDN service which also provides DDoS protection and SSL.
  • CloudFormation: An AWS service that allows you to use a simple JSON or YAML file to model and provision, in an automated and secure manner, all the resources needed for your applications across all of your regions and accounts.
  • CloudFront: A content delivery network (CDN) service provided by AWS, that speeds up the delivery of static and dynamic web content.
  • CloudStack: An open-source cloud computing software that allows you to create, manage, and deploy virtual machines, storage, and networking in your own datacenter or private cloud.
  • CNAME (Canonical Name) record: An DNS record type that maps a domain or subdomain to another domain or subdomain, allowing multiple domains or subdomains to point to the same website.
  • Containerization technology: Such as Docker, that enables developers to package an application and its dependencies in a container, making it easy to deploy and run the application on any environment.
  • Containerization: A technology that allows developers to package an application and its dependencies in a container, making it easy to deploy and run the application on any environment.
  • Content Delivery Network (CDN): A network of servers that are distributed around the world, used to speed up the delivery of web content by caching and delivering content from the server closest to the user.
  • Content Security Policy (CSP): A security feature that allows a website to specify which sources of content are allowed to be loaded, in order to prevent cross-site scripting and other types of attacks.
  • Continuous Deployment: The practice of automatically deploying code changes to a production environment as soon as they are committed to the source code repository.
  • Continuous integration and delivery (CI/CD): The practice of automatically building, testing, and deploying code changes to a production environment.
  • Control Panel: A web-based interface that allows users to manage their hosting account and website settings.
  • Cpanel: A popular web-based control panel for managing hosting account and website settings.
  • CRL (Certificate Revocation List): A list of revoked SSL/TLS certificates that is maintained by a certificate authority.
  • Cron job: A scheduled task that runs automatically on a web server, used to perform specific actions at specific times.
  • Cross-site request forgery (CSRF): A type of attack that involves tricking a user into performing an action on a website without their knowledge or consent, such as changing their password or making a purchase.
  • Cross-site scripting (XSS): A type of attack that involves injecting malicious code into a web page in order to execute it on the client’s browser and steal sensitive information or perform other malicious actions.
  • Database server: A software that manages and stores data for websites, such as user information or content.
  • DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack: A type of cyber attack in which a website is flooded with fake traffic in order to make it unavailable to legitimate users.
  • DDoS mitigation: The practice of protecting a website or network from DDoS attacks by filtering or blocking malicious traffic.
  • Dedicated hosting: A type of hosting service where an entire server is leased to a single client.
  • DevOps: A set of practices and tools that aims to bridge the gap between development and operations teams, allowing for faster and more efficient software delivery.
  • DMARC (Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting & Conformance) record: An DNS record type that is used to protect a domain from unauthorized use, such as email spoofing.
  • DNS (Domain Name System): A system that translates domain names into IP addresses, allowing web browsers to access websites using their domain names.
  • DNS record: An entry in a DNS server’s database that contains information about a domain, such as its IP address or mail server.
  • Docker: An open-source platform for developing, shipping, and running applications in containers, which are lightweight, portable, and self-sufficient executables of an application.
  • Domain name: The address of a website on the internet, such as “example.com.”
  • Edge computing: A distributed computing paradigm that brings computation and data storage closer to the source of data, in order to improve response times and save bandwidth.
  • Edge Computing: A distributed computing paradigm that brings computation and data storage closer to the source of data, to improve response times and save bandwidth.
  • Elastic Beanstalk: A fully managed service provided by AWS for deploying, running and scaling web applications and services developed with Java, .NET, PHP, Node.js, Python, Ruby, Go, and Docker on familiar servers such as Apache, Nginx, Passenger, and IIS.
  • EV (Extended Validation) SSL/TLS Certificates: A type of SSL/TLS certificate that requires a higher level of validation for the organization that is requesting the certificate, and typically displays a green address bar in the user’s browser.
  • Fargate: A fully managed service provided by AWS that allows you to run containers without the need to manage the underlying infrastructure.
  • Firewall rule: A set of instructions that tells a firewall how to handle incoming or outgoing network traffic based on certain criteria.
  • Firewall: A security system that controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predefined security rules.
  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol): A protocol used to transfer files between a website and a user’s computer.
  • FTP user: A user account that allows access to a specific directory on an FTP server.
  • Function-as-a-Service (FaaS): A service that allows developers to run code in response to specific events, such as an HTTP request or a message on a queue, without provisioning or managing servers.
  • Google Cloud Functions: A serverless compute service provided by Google Cloud that allows developers to run code in response to specific events.
  • Heroku: A fully managed platform for developing, running, and scaling web applications, that offers a variety of programming languages and frameworks, and can also be used to deploy containerized applications.
  • HINFO (Host Information) record: An DNS record type that is used to specify the type and version of the operating system and hardware that a host is running.
  • Hosting: A service that allows individuals and organizations to make their website accessible on the internet.
  • HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS): A security feature that forces web browsers to only access a website using HTTPS, even if the user tries to access it using HTTP.
  • HTTP/2 Push: A feature of HTTP/2 that allows a server to pre-emptively send resources to a client before they are requested to improve website performance.
  • HTTP/2 Server Push: A feature of HTTP/2 that allows a web server to push resources to a client before they are requested, in order to improve website performance.
  • HTTP/2: The latest version of the HTTP protocol, which offers improved performance and security features compared to its predecessor, HTTP/1.1.
  • HTTP/3: The latest version of the HTTP protocol, which uses a new transport protocol called QUIC, is designed to improve performance and security similarly to HTTP/2 but with a more modern and efficient design.
  • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure): A protocol for securely transmitting data over the internet, typically used to protect sensitive information such as login credentials and credit card numbers.
  • Hybrid Cloud: A type of cloud computing that combines public cloud services with private cloud or on-premises infrastructure.
  • Hyper-V: A virtualization platform developed by Microsoft that allows you to create, manage, and deploy virtual machines and other resources in your own datacenter or private cloud.
  • Hypervisor: A piece of software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines.
  • IIS (Internet Information Services): A web server software developed by Microsoft for Windows servers.
  • Intermediate CA: A level of trust in a PKI hierarchy, responsible for issuing and managing digital certificates for end entities.
  • IP address: A numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.
  • IP blocking: A security measure that blocks traffic from specific IP addresses or ranges of addresses.
  • JSON Web Token (JWT): A JSON-based open standard for creating access tokens, used for authentication and authorization in web applications.
  • Kubernetes: An open-source container orchestration system for automating deployment, scaling, and managing containerized applications.
  • Kubernetes: An open-source container orchestration system for automating containerized applications’ deployment, scaling, and management.
  • KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine): A virtualization platform that is built into the Linux kernel and allows you to create, manage, and deploy virtual machines and other resources in your own datacenter or private cloud.
  • Lambda: A serverless compute service provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS) that allows developers to run code in response to specific events.
  • LAMP: An acronym for Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP, a popular software stack used for web development.
  • Latency: The amount of time it takes for data to be transferred between a website and a user.
  • Let’s Encrypt: A non-profit organization that provides free SSL/TLS certificates to website owners.
  • Load Balancer Algorithm: A method that is used to determine how traffic is distributed among the servers in a load balancer pool, such as round-robin, least connections, IP hash, and more.
  • Load balancer: A device or service that distributes incoming network traffic across multiple servers in order to improve website performance and availability.
  • Load testing: The process of determining a system’s performance by simulating a large number of users accessing the system at the same time.
  • Managed hosting: A hosting service where the hosting provider is responsible for managing and maintaining the servers, including updates, backups, and security.
  • Memcached: An open-source, distributed memory object caching system that speeds up web applications by caching data and objects in RAM.
  • Microservices: A software architecture pattern in which an application is built as a set of small, independent services that communicate with each other through APIs.
  • Multi-cloud: A type of cloud computing that involves using multiple cloud services from different providers, rather than being tied to a single provider.
  • MX record: An DNS record type that maps a domain to its mail server’s hostname or IP address.
  • Nameservers: Special type of DNS servers that are responsible for resolving domain names to IP addresses.
  • NS (Name Server) record: An DNS record type that maps a domain to its nameservers.
  • OAuth: An open standard for authorization that allows users to grant third-party applications access to their resources without sharing their credentials.
  • OCSP (Online Certificate Status Protocol): A protocol that allows a web browser to check the revocation status of an SSL/TLS certificate before establishing a secure connection.
  • OpenID Connect: A protocol built on top of OAuth 2.0 that allows users to authenticate and authorize third-party applications using a single set of credentials.
  • OpenShift: An open-source, container application platform, that allows for the management of containerized applications and services, built on top of Kubernetes and including a variety of developer tools.
  • OpenStack: An open-source cloud computing software that allows you to create, manage, and deploy virtual machines, storage, and networking in your own data center or private cloud.
  • Parked domain: A domain that is pointed to the same website as the main domain.
  • PHP: A programming language commonly used for web development.
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  • PTR (Pointer) record: An DNS record type that is used to map an IP address to a hostname, also known as a reverse DNS lookup.
  • Public Key Infrastructure (PKI): A system for managing digital certificates and public-private key pairs, used to establish secure connections and authenticate users and devices.
  • Puppet: An open-source tool for automating the configuration and management of servers, it uses its own declarative language and can also be integrated with other tools like Hiera for data management and MCollective for orchestration.
  • Rancher: An open-source platform for managing and deploying containerized applications, that can run on-premises or on cloud infrastructure and supports multiple orchestration engines, including Kubernetes, Docker Swarm, and Cattle (Rancher’s own orchestration engine).
  • Real-time Applications: Applications that require low latency and instant updates, such as online gaming, live streaming, and financial trading platforms.
  • Redirect: A method of forwarding one URL to another, either temporarily or permanently.
  • Redis: An open-source, in-memory data structure store, used as a database, cache and message broker.
  • Reverse proxy caching: A technique that involves caching the response of a web server in a reverse proxy, in order to reduce the load on the web server and improve website performance.
  • Reverse proxy: A server that sits in front of one or more web servers and acts as an intermediary between clients and servers, forwarding requests and responses.
  • Root access: The highest level of access to a server, allowing full control of the server’s settings and files.
  • Root CA (Certificate Authority): The highest level of trust in a PKI hierarchy, responsible for issuing and managing digital certificates for other CAs and end entities.
  • SAN (Subject Alternative Name) SSL/TLS Certificates: A type of SSL/TLS certificate that can be used to secure multiple domain names with a single certificate.
  • Server root: The main directory on a web server where the website files are stored.
  • Serverless computing: A type of cloud computing that allows developers to run code without provisioning or managing servers, and only pay for the resources that are consumed.
  • Serverless: A type of cloud computing that allows developers to run code without provisioning or managing servers.
  • Server-side scripting: The process of creating dynamic web pages using programming languages like PHP, Python, Ruby, and more.
  • Shared hosting: A type of hosting service where multiple websites share a single server and its resources.
  • Snapshot: A complete copy of the current state of a virtual machine, server or storage device, that can be used to revert to that state if needed.
  • SNI (Server Name Indication): An extension to the SSL/TLS protocol that allows a web server to serve multiple SSL/TLS certificates on the same IP address.
  • SOA (Start of Authority) record: An DNS record type that contains information about the zone, including the primary nameserver, the email of the domain administrator, the zone’s serial number, and various timeout values.
  • Softaculous: A third-party application installer that allows users to easily install popular web applications like WordPress, Joomla, and more.
  • SPF (Sender Policy Framework) record: An DNS record type that is used to prevent email spoofing by specifying which servers are authorized to send email for a specific domain.
  • SQL injection: A type of attack that involves injecting malicious code into a web application’s SQL statements in order to gain unauthorized access to the application’s data.
  • SRV (Service) record: An DNS record type that is used to specify the hostname and port number of services, such as SIP, XMPP, and LDAP servers.
  • SSH (Secure Shell): A protocol used to securely access and manage a remote server.
  • SSH key: A method of authentication that uses a pair of cryptographic keys to authenticate a client and a server.
  • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) / TLS (Transport Layer Security): A protocol used to secure website connections and protect sensitive data from being intercepted by third parties.
  • SSL certificate: A digital certificate that is used to establish a secure connection between a website and a user’s browser.
  • SSL/TLS Certificates: Digital certificates that are used to establish a secure connection between a website and a user’s browser using SSL/TLS protocols.
  • SSL/TLS Handshake: The process of establishing a secure connection between a client and a server using SSL/TLS protocols.
  • SSL/TLS Offloading: The process of offloading the SSL/TLS encryption and decryption process from the web servers to a separate device, such as a load balancer or reverse proxy, in order to improve website performance and security.
  • SSL/TLS Termination: The process of decrypting SSL/TLS traffic at a load balancer or reverse proxy, before forwarding it to the web servers.
  • Subdomain: A domain that is a sub-section of a main domain, such as “subdomain.example.com.”
  • Terraform: An open-source tool for building, changing, and versioning infrastructure safely and efficiently. It can manage popular service providers as well as custom in-house solutions.
  • This is an extensive list of various terminologies and definitions related to hosting, cloud computing, and web development. But i believe it covers most of the common terms that you would encounter in this field.
  • TTL (Time to Live): The amount of time that a DNS record is cached before it is considered stale and needs to be re-queried.
  • Two-factor authentication: A security measure that requires users to provide two forms of identification before gaining access to a system or resource, such as a password and a fingerprint or a password and a one-time code sent to their phone.
  • TXT (Text) record: An DNS record type that can be used to store various types of text-based information, such as email authentication records, SPF, and DMARC records.
  • Unmanaged hosting: A type of hosting service where the customer is responsible for managing and maintaining the servers.
  • Uptime: The amount of time a website is available and accessible to users.
  • Varnish Cache: An open-source, reverse proxy and caching HTTP accelerator, used to speed up web applications by caching data and objects in RAM.
  • Virtual Machine Scale Sets: A feature of Azure that allows you to create and manage a group of identical, load balanced VMs.
  • Virtual Machine: A software implementation of a computer that can run an operating system and applications like a physical machine.
  • Virtual Private Cloud (VPC): A virtual network that is isolated from the rest of a public cloud provider’s network, allowing you to launch resources in a virtual network that you define.
  • Virtual Private Server (VPS): A virtual machine that is sold as a service by an Internet hosting service.
  • Virtualization: The creation of a virtual version of something, such as a operating system, a server, storage device or network resources.
  • VPS (Virtual Private Server) hosting: A type of hosting service where a single server is divided into multiple virtual servers, each with its own resources and operating system.
  • vSphere: A virtualization platform developed by VMware that allows you to create, manage, and deploy virtual machines and other resources in your own datacenter or private cloud.
  • WAMP: An acronym for Windows, Apache, MySQL, and PHP, a software stack similar to LAMP but designed for Windows servers.
  • Web application firewall (WAF): A firewall that is specifically designed to protect web applications from various types of attacks by filtering or blocking malicious traffic.
  • Web application firewall (WAF): A firewall that is specifically designed to protect web applications from various types of attacks.
  • Web server: A software that processes incoming network requests and sends back the appropriate response, such as a webpage or an error message.
  • WebAssembly: A binary instruction format for a stack-based virtual machine, designed as a portable target for the compilation of high-level languages like C, C++, and Rust, allowing them to run on the web at near-native speed.
  • WebRTC (Web Real-Time Communication): A technology that allows for real-time communication and data transfer between web browsers and other devices, such as cameras and microphones.
  • WebSockets: A protocol that allows for full-duplex communication between a web browser and a server, enabling real-time communication and data transfer.
  • WHM (Web Host Manager): A control panel for managing a web hosting server, typically used by hosting providers to manage multiple hosting accounts.
  • Wildcard SSL/TLS Certificates: A SSL/TLS certificate can secure multiple domain subdomains with a single certificate.
  • Xen: An open-source virtualization platform that allows you to create, manage, and deploy virtual machines and other resources in your own datacenter or private cloud.

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