Brain wave frequencies refer to the patterns of neuron electrical activity. They are divided into bandwidths to describe their functions (but note that the precise boundaries of these bands can vary):

Delta Waves (0.5 to 3 Hz)

  • Deepest level of dreamless sleep, meditation, and trance states.
  • When we’re in deep, restorative sleep.

Theta Waves (3 to 8 Hz)

  • REM sleep, deep meditation, and visualization.
  • Linked to intuition, creativity, and subconscious mind.
  • Common during early stages of sleep.

Alpha Waves (8 to 14 Hz)

  • Relaxed, calm, lucid, and not thinking.
  • Bridge between conscious and subconscious mind.
  • Prominent during relaxation and calm wakefulness.

Beta Waves (14 to 30 Hz)

  • Engaged in active, analytical thought.
  • Dominant during awake state when one is alert, attentive, or making decisions.
  • Can be further divided into Low Beta (12-15 Hz), Beta (15-22 Hz), and High Beta (22-30 Hz).

Gamma Waves (30 to 100+ Hz)

  • Associated with higher cognitive functions and formation of ideas.
  • Insight, peak focus, expanded consciousness.
  • Faster cognitive processing.

It’s important to note that while these frequencies can be measured and have associated states or tasks, the human brain is complex, and there’s a lot going on simultaneously. All of these waves are present to some degree all the time, but depending on the task or state of consciousness, some may be more dominant than others.