ERP systems are modular in design, allowing organizations to choose and implement components that best suit their operational needs. Each module focuses on a specific business area, ensuring that various departments and functions can seamlessly integrate and share data. Here’s a breakdown of some of the core and supplementary modules typically found in ERP systems:

Core Modules of ERP Systems:

  1. Financial Management:
    • Handles accounting and financial operations.
    • Manages general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, fixed assets, and cash management.
    • Facilitates financial reporting, forecasting, and budgeting.
  2. Human Resources Management (HRM):
    • Manages personnel-related tasks.
    • Facilitates recruitment, payroll, benefits, training, and performance evaluations.
    • Handles time tracking and employee self-service portals.
  3. Supply Chain Management (SCM):
    • Manages the flow of goods, information, and finances.
    • Handles procurement, order processing, inventory management, logistics, and vendor relationships.
  4. Manufacturing & Production:
    • Supports manufacturing processes and production planning.
    • Manages work orders, production scheduling, bill of materials (BOM), and quality control.
  5. Customer Relationship Management (CRM):
    • Manages interactions with potential and existing customers.
    • Supports sales, marketing, customer service, and after-sales support.
  6. Inventory Management:
    • Tracks product quantities, movements, and locations.
    • Manages stock levels, order points, and warehouses.
  7. Project Management:
    • Facilitates the planning, tracking, and execution of projects.
    • Manages resources, budgets, timelines, and task assignments.
  8. Purchasing:
    • Manages procurement processes.
    • Handles purchase orders, supplier evaluations, and negotiations.

Supplementary or Advanced Modules (vary based on ERP providers):

  1. Business Intelligence (BI):
    • Provides tools for data analysis, visualization, and reporting.
    • Aids in strategic decision-making.
  2. eCommerce:
    • Supports online sales and digital business operations.
    • Integrates with other modules for seamless order processing and customer management.
  3. Point of Sale (POS):
    • Facilitates retail sales and integrates with inventory and financial modules.
  4. Asset Management:
    • Manages the lifecycle of physical assets.
    • Handles maintenance schedules, depreciation, and asset tracking.
  5. Customer Service & Support:
    • Manages after-sales support tickets, service schedules, and customer inquiries.
  6. Warehouse Management:
    • Provides advanced tools for warehouse operations.
    • Manages storage locations, picking, packing, and shipping.
  7. Quality Management:
    • Ensures product and process quality.
    • Manages quality checks, audits, and certifications.
  8. Research & Development (R&D):
    • Supports product design and development processes.
    • Manages prototypes, testing, and product launches.


The modular nature of ERP systems ensures flexibility, allowing organizations to tailor their ERP solution to their unique requirements. By integrating various modules, businesses can have a centralized system that provides a holistic view of their operations, enhancing efficiency and decision-making. When selecting an ERP system, it’s essential to assess which modules are critical for the organization’s current needs while also considering potential future requirements.